The amazing photograph above shows splashes formed from single drops landing in puddles. Captured over several months, they were photographed in darkness using a high-speed flash to preserve their colors and shapes and then brought together in one image.
This winning photograph shows drops of glycerin and water impacting a thin film of ethanol. The difference in surface tension creates holes in the drop’s surface making it look like lace.
Another image created by Phred Petersen. This is a time lapse image showing the progress of an agaric toadstool mushroom as it grows.
Phred Petersen is a Senior Lecturer and Coordinator Scientific Photography, School of Media and Communication at RMIT University, a global university of technology and design.
This last photo is a confocal image of a marine organism (obelia hydroid) taken with the 10x objective. It was a winner from the 2016 International Images for Science competition.
Just one more – an honorable mention from 2017 Nikon Small World Competition.
The hydroid Ectopleura larynx is a fouling organism usually found attached to sunken ropes, floating buoys, piers, mussel shells, rocks, seaweed and the undersides of boats in the seas surrounding Great Britain and the Americas. This organism grows in colonies that can tolerate exposed habitats and strong water currents. Sometimes called Common Flowerheads in the fish farming industry this hydroid can cause problems by reducing water flow and quality.
Ectopleura larynx has two distinct rings of tentacles, one around its mouth and the other at the base of the head. In between these two rings, are the gonophores, or the sexual buds.
The hydroid Tubularia indivisa is also called oaten pipes. This large hydroid is also native to northeastern Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, Norwegian Sea and the English Channel.
The solitary polps of Hydroid Tubularia indivisa are found on dull yellow unbranched stems that reach a height of 4-6”. The pinkish to red polps resemble flowers, having two concentric rings of tentacles, with the outer rings being paler and longer than the inner ring.
Hydroid Tubularia indivisa are preyed upon by nudibranch, another marine animal that looks like a snail without a shell.
These flower like hydroids are often considered delicate and soft. But beware. Their delicate looks belie their potent nature. They possess an armament of stinging cells equipped in their tentacles to capture and subdue prey.
Bioengineering’s most visible branch is the development of medical innovations such as prosthetics and high-tech implants, but genetic, stem cell and tissue engineering are all set to become key fields in the medicine of the future.
For example, to help prep a surgeon who needed to close the hole in an infant’s heart, a biomedical robotic expert at the Children’s National Medical Centre in Washington, DC created a model heart with a 3D printer. He used a mix of hard and soft plastics to replica the feel of a real heart.
In China medical doctors at the Orthopedic Hospital in Zhengzhou City created a 3D model of a dislocated spine. This allowed them to practice a complicated surgical procedure ahead of time…isolating and opening the problem area, resetting the dislocation and then screwing everything back together without damaging the patient’s actual spinal cord.
To rescue babies born with congenital breathing condition which caused their airways to collapse, the University of Michigan has customized tracheal splints made from biocompatible material. The splints support the collapsed trachea and then get reabsorbed within two years.
Using bioengineering to create organ structures that function and restore the health of that tissue for that person, is the holy grail of bioengineering for regenerative medicine.
Scientists at Northwestern University created prosthetic ovaries for mice. The prosthetic ovaries were printed using liquid gelatin made from broken-down collagen, a natural material, which is found in ligaments, tendons, muscles, bones and skin.
The research team built the ovaries by printing various patterns of overlapping gelatin filaments on glass slides—like building with Lincoln Logs, but on a miniature scale: Each scaffold measured just 15 by 15 millimeters. They then carefully inserted mouse follicles—spherical structures containing a growing egg surrounded by hormone-producing cells—into these “scaffolds.”
After punching out 2-millimeter circles through the scaffolds and implanting 40–50 follicles into each one, they created a “bioprosthetic” ovary. The team showed that blood vessels from each mouse infiltrated the scaffolds. This process is critical because it provides oxygen and nutrients to the follicles and allows hormones produced by the follicles to circulate in the blood stream. The result was a fully functional bio-prosthetic ovary that not only restored hormone function, but also allowed the mice to get pregnant, deliver pups and lactate after birth.
In the future ready-to-implant organs should be possible in humans with 3D bioprinting. Scientists are excited that this technique could restore function in cancer patients who have lost their fertility.
Bioengineering is also being used to build artificial biological systems for research, engineering and medical applications.
Synthetic biology gives scientists unprecedented control of living cells at the genetic level. This field encompasses both plant and mammalian cells.
MIT biological engineers have created a programming language that allows them to rapidly design complex, DNA-encoded circuits to give new functions to living cells. The circuit runs inside a bacteria cell. It’s like they are hacking living cells to program a new language.
The MIT team plans to work on several different applications using this approach: bacteria that can be swallowed to aid in digestion of lactose; bacteria that can live on plant roots and produce insecticide if they sense the plant is under attack; and yeast that can be engineered to shut off when they are producing too many toxic byproducts in a fermentation reactor. In the future the bacteria could be programmed to release cancer drugs when encountering a tumor.
Biomedical engineering and biological programming are exciting, expanding new field of research with unlimited possibilities.
Most caterpillars have long hair called setae covering their bodies. This hair act as a defense mechanism. The hairs often have detachable tips that will irritate would-be predators by lodging in the skin or mucous membranes.
Here are a trio to avoid: the puss caterpillar, the hickory tussock caterpillar and the io moth caterpillar.
The most venomous caterpillar in the United States, the puss caterpillar, got its name because it resembles a cuddly house cat. Small, extremely toxic spines stick in your skin releasing venom. At first the sting feels like a bee sting, only worse. The pain rapidly gets worse and can even make your bones hurt. People who have been stung on the hand say the pain can radiate up to their shoulder and last for up to 12 hours.
One dapper critter called the hickory tussock caterpillar has a velvety back and sweeping bristles. It looks more like a vintage feather boa than a caterpillar and is widely distributed in the eastern half of North America.
Some people have little to no reaction to the hickory tussock’s sting, but others have a reaction that ranges from a mild to severe rash comparable to poison ivy. It’s microscopic barbs may cause serious medial complications if they are transferred from the hands to the eyes. The adult moth flies away in May and June.
Caterpillars have to eat a lot. Within a few weeks of devouring as much greenery as physically possible, an io caterpillar can go from being a half-inch-long worm to a nearly three-inch-long monstrosity, brilliant green with red and white racing stripes like the Io mother caterpillar:
Io caterpillars are indeed capable, and more than willing, to deliver a painful sting. If you brush up against these spines, the tips will break off and start to inject venom.
So what do you do if you get stung by any of these toxic caterpillars? Place Scotch tape over the affected area and strip off repeatedly to remove spines. Apply ice packs to reduce the stinging sensation, and follow with a paste of baking soda and water. If you have a history of hay fever, asthma or allergy, or if allergic reactions develop, contact a physician immediately.
A person’s home is their castle and they populate it with their own subjects – millions and millions of bacteria.
When we move from one location to another we take all of our bacteria with us and “colonize” the space around us within a matter of hours. These “bacterial signatures” are unique.
Microbiome studies could serve as a forensic tool. In the future scientists could look at bacterial colonies to identify the last person to come into contact with the victim of a crime and estimated when the contact happened.
The human gut teems with bacteria, many of their species still unknown. They help us digest food and absorb nutrients, and they play a part in protecting our intestinal walls. Gut bacteria may also help regulate weight and ward off autoimmune diseases.
What are “superbugs” ? Any bacteria that cannot be treated by two or more antibiotics is being called a superbug. The CDC claims the single leading factor for the increase in superbugs is the misuse of antibiotics. Most people who get a C. diff (Clostridium difficile) infection are getting medical care.
MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus) is carried by around 30 per cent of the population without causing any symptoms. However, in vulnerable people, such as those that have recently had surgery, it can cause wound infections, pneumonia and blood poisoning. MRSA cannot be treated with penicillin.
Doctors sometimes recommend beneficial bacteria, also known as probiotics, for patients suffering from GI illnesses such as colitis and Crohn’s disease. However, these over-the-counter probiotic supplements may contain varying amounts of bacteria, and may include cells that are no longer viable. Furthermore, these probiotics have no protective coating, so they can be damaged by acid in the stomach before reaching the intestines.
An MIT team has come up with a method of coating these beneficial bacteria with layer-by-layer layers of polysaccharides or sugars. The thin, gel-like coating protects the bacteria cells from acid in the stomach, as well as bile salts. Once the cells reach the intestines, they settle in and begin replicating, creating a whole new microbiome.
3D Computed Tomography (CT) is a nondestructive scanning technology that allows you to view and inspect the external and internal structures of an object in 3D space. Computed Tomography works by taking hundreds or thousands of 2D Digital Radiography projections around a 360 degree rotation of an object. Algorithms are then used to reconstruct the 2D projections into a 3D CT volume, which will allow you to view and slice the part at any angle.
The same technology allows medical doctors and dentists to more accurately diagnose their patients and/or to view implants.
In the course of developing sophisticated imaging techniques for peering into the human body, radiologist Dr. Kai-Hung Fung discovered something within himself: an artist.
Dr. Fung is a specialist in diagnostic radiology at Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, China. The discovery happened when Fung was asked by surgeons to generate 3-D images to allow them to visualize complex anatomies prior to surgery. Beginning with CT scans that show slices of organs at different depths, Fung stacked the slices into a single image and developed a way to indicate changes in depth with contour lines similar to those on a topographic map.
Dr. Fung has used a post-production trick he developed, known as the “rainbow technique” to add colored contour lines to his images. This enhances the 3D effect.
His approach to radiology doesn’t stop with medical imagery. He has partnered with Dr. Gary Yeoh to produce 3-D CT images of flowers and biological specimens.
Dr. Fung’s art career has blossomed. His amazing diagnostic images have been awarded, exhibited and published. His CT and MR scans are more than just psychedelic images, they are “4-D visualizations” that help surgeons visualize the changing perspectives and relative relationships of various anatomical structures.
No larger than a ladybug but with an elaborate mating dance the Maratus “peacock” jumping spider of Australia has a spectacular display.
To woo the female spiders the males are talented dancer with fancy footwork and an elaborate, decorative abdomen flap that they can raise up and down.
The female watches enthralled and if she is swept away by his magnificence she will allow him to mate, sometimes after first turning and doing her own dance to him, wiggling her abdomen seductively.
The greatest attribute of these jumping spiders is their advanced eyes. All spiders have eight, occasionally six, eyes, but they are generally quite simple organs, specks of black or silver that can detect light and dark, shadow and movement and some fairly rudimentary blurry images. The two central front eyes of the jumping spider are much more advanced – large, fronted by spherical lenses, with an internal focussing mechanism and complex four layered retina. All this means that a jumping spider can see fine detail, in color and at different distances.
Both sexes of the Australian “peacock” jumping spider have the ability to see color through ultraviolet, blue, green and red photoreceptor cells within their eyes.
The pattern on the male abdomen is unique and so is the choreography of each species’ dance
In June of 2016 Seven new species of peacock spider from the southern coast of Western and South Australia were discovered and named last month, bringing the total number of species discovered up to 48.
Just for fun watch this video created by naturalist Jürgen Otto of a male waving his legs around and raising his bright colorful display to attract a nearby female: